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作者:1,2,3 来源: 日期:2017/2/10 9:21:12 人气: 98

语言学概论》试题(一)

I.Define the following special terms.

1.language

2.morpheme

3.semantics

4.neurolinguistics

5.pidgin

II.What does each of the following shortened forms stand for?

1.CAI →

2.WTO →

3.VIP →

4.IBM →

5.VOA →

III.Draw a tree diagram of the following sentences by using N.Chomsky's theory.

The         computer           fell   down.

IV.Work out the metrical pattern in the following lines.

a.Then say not Man's imperfect,Heaven in fault

________________

b.When in disgrace with for tune and  men's eyes
I all alone  be weep my outcast state (Sonnet 29)

_

V.Work out the rhyme scheme of the following poem.

William Shakespeare-Sonnet 149

Canst thou,O cruel!say I love thee not,

When I against myself with thee partake?

Do I not think on thee,when I forgot

Am of myself,all tyrant,for thy sake?

Who hateth thee that I do call my friend?

On whom frown'st thou that I do fawn upon?

Nay,if thou lour'st on me,do I not spend

Revenge upon myself with present moan?

What merit do I in myself respect,

That is so proud thy service to despise,

When all my best doth worship thy defect,

Commanded by the motion of thine eyes?

But,love,hate on,for now I know thy mind;

Those that can see thou lovest,and I am blind.

Rhyme scheme:______________________________________

VI.Translate the following extract of a piece of linguistic theoretical writing into Chinese.

The Department of Linguistics offers B.A.programmes in linguistics,as well as combined programmes with languages other than English and with Philosophy,as shown in the Programmes of Study.

In addition to the undergraduate curriculum within the Department of Linguistics,there are courses relating to linguistics offered in other departments,such as the language departments,Anthropology,Computer Science,Mathematics,Philosophy,and Psychology,and in the Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence programme.

Woodsworth College students should note that most of the summer and evening courses available to them are offered on a rotating basis only.Consequently,students wishing to take such courses should enroll in them at the earliest opportunity after completing the necessary prerequisites.

The Department offers M.A.and Ph.D.programmes in two areas of specialization: Theoretical Linguistics and Linguistic Variation.Students seeking information should contact the Graduate Coordinator,Prof.Elan Dresher (Robarts Library 6075).

VII.Describe your own language learning experience from the perspective of one of the following three classical linguistic theories.

1.Comprehensible Input

2.Concept of Interlanguage

3.The influence of mother tongue on English learning


《语言学概论》试题(二)

Chapter I  Introduction


I.Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

1.Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.

2.Linguistics studies particular language,not languages in general.

3.A scientific study of language is based on what the linguist thinks.

4.In the study of linguistics,hypotheses formed should be based on language facts and checked against the observed facts.

5.General linguistics is generally the study of language as a whole.

6.General linguistics,which relates itself to the research of other areas,studies the basic concepts,theories,descriptions,models and methods applicable in any linguistic study.

7.Phonetics is different from phonology in that the latter studies the combinations of the sounds to convey meaning in communication.

8.Morphology studies how words can be formed to produce meaningful sentences.

9.The study of the ways in which morphemes can be combined to form words is called morphology.

10.Syntax is different from morphology in that the former not only studies the morphemes,but also the combination of morphemes into words and words into sentences.

11.The study of meaning in language is known as semantics.

12.Both semantics and pragmatics study meanings.

13.Pragmatics is different from semantics in that pragmatics studies meaning not in isolation,but in context.

14.Social changes can often bring about language changes.

15.Sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society.

16.Modern linguistics is mostly prescriptive,but sometimes descriptive.

17.Modern linguistics is different from traditional grammar.

18.A diachronic study of language is the description of language at some point in time.

19 Modern linguistics regards the written language as primary,not the written language.

20.The distinction between competence and performance was proposed by F.de Saussure.

II.Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given:

21.Chomsky defines " competence" as the ideal user's k__________ of the rules of his language.

22.Langue refers to the a__________ linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community while the parole is the concrete use of the conventions and application of the rules.

23.D_________ is one of the design features of human language which refers to the phenomenon that language consists of two levels: a lower level of meaningless individual sounds and a higher level of meaningful units.

24.Language is a system of a_________ vocal symbols used for human communication.

25.The discipline that studies the rules governing the formation of words into permissible sentences in languages is called s________.

26.Human capacity for language has a g ____ basis,but the details of language have to be taught and learned.

27.P ____ refers to the realization of langue in actual use.

28.Findings in linguistic studies can often be applied to the settlement of some practical problems.The study of such applications is generally known as a________ linguistics.

29.Language is p___________ in that it makes possible the construction and interpretation of new signals by its users.In other words,they can produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences which they have never heard before.

30.Linguistics is generally defined as the s ____ study of language.

III.There are four choices following each statement.Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.

31.If a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use,it is said to be ______________.

A.prescriptive                    B.analytic

C.descriptive                     D.linguistic

32.Which of the following is not a design feature of human language?

A.Arbitrariness                    B.Displacement

C.Duality                          D.Meaningfulness

33.Modern linguistics regards the written language as ____________.

A.primary                          B.correct

C.secondary                     D.stable

34.In modern linguistics,speech is regarded as more basic than writing,because ___________.

A.in linguistic evolution,speech is prior to writing

B.speech plays a greater role than writing in terms of the amount of information conveyed.

C.speech is always the way in which every native speaker acquires his mother tongue

D.All of the above

35.A historical study of language is a ____ study of language.

A.synchronic                  B.diachronic

C.prescriptive                D.comparative

36.Saussure took a (n)__________ view of language,while Chomsky looks at language from a ________ point of view.

A.sociological…psychological    B.psychological…sociological

C.applied… pragmatic              D.semantic and linguistic

37.According to F.de Saussure,____ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community.

A.parole                       B.performance

C.langue                 D.Language

38.Language is said to be arbitrary because there is no logical connection between _________ and meanings.

A.sense                B.sounds

C.objects                    D.ideas

39.Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker.This feature is called_________,

A.displacement                    B.duality

C.flexibility                        D.cultural transmission

40.The details of any language system is passed on from one generation to the next through ____,rather than by instinct.

A.learning                       B.teaching

C.books                   D.both A and B

IV.Define the following terms:

41.Linguistics      42.Phonology        43.Syntax        44.Pragmatics

45.Psycholinguistics    46.Language      47.Phonetics

48.Morphology  49.Semantics    50.Sociolinguistics

51.Applied Linguistics 52.Arbitrariness  53 Productivity

54.Displacement      55.Duality        56.Design Features

57.Competence  58 Performance    59.Langue        60 Parole

V.Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible.Give examples  for illustration if necessary:

61.Language is generally defined as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for  human communication.Explain it in detail.

62.What are the design features of human language?Illustrate them with examples.

63.How is modern linguistics different from traditional grammar?

64.How do you understand the distinction between a synchronic study and a diachronic study?

65.Why does modern linguistics regard the spoken form of language as primary,not the written?

66.What are the major distinctions between langue and parole?

67.How do you understand competence and performance ?

68.Saussure's distinction between langue and parole seems similar to Chomsky's distinction between competence and performance.What do you think are their major differences?

69.Do you think human language is entirely arbitrary?Why?


语言学概论试题(三)

单项选择题

语言是由()构成的系统。

词和语音语义和语法词和语法规则语音和语法规则

现代汉语的"""",()。

两个都是词两个都不是词

前一个是词,后一个不是词后一个是词,前一个不是词

一个词可以有一系列不同的反义词,这是因为这个词是()。

同义词同形同音词异形同音词多义词

在现代汉语中,()可以区分词的语音形式。

[A][a][p][p][v][w][e][ ]

语言是一种()现象。

个人个人心理社会自然

[e]是一个()元音。

前高不圆唇前半高圆唇前半高不圆唇前半低不圆唇

下列名词中,()有词义吞并的现象。

长江土地质量人民

汉语拼音中声母和韵母的关系是()。

组合关系聚合关系字母拼写关系意义关系

属于粘着语的语言有()。

俄语汉语日语英语

语言中最小的符号是()。

音素语素音位

词义的核心是()。

词汇意义语法意义附加色彩理性意义

"船头"这个词采用的构词方式是()。

词根加词缀前缀加词根后缀加词根改变读音

普通话以北京语音为标准音,是()。

历届政府规定的大多数同意的从清朝开始的历史上形成的

文字()。

起源于图画起源于图画仅仅限于汉字

早期就是图画与图画没有关系

思维对于人类来说,()。

既有共同性的一面,也有民族特点大体是共同的,民族特点并不多

是共同的没有民族性不存在共同性只有民族性

多项选择题(多选、少选、错选,均不给分)

北京话中有把脑袋读成[naut ]的,这是一种()。

音位变体读音错误语流音变现象同化现象弱化现象

语法单位包括()。

句子词组语素音位

下列词中属于派生词的有()。

老房子老朋友老师老弟老鼠

英语和俄语()。

是亲属语言同出一源同属一个语族

不属于一个语族都来源于拉丁语

解释题

借词共同语词的词汇意义黑话

判断分析题(先判断正误,然后简述理由)

"洋泾浜"是当地人没有学好的外语,是外语在当地语言影响下出现的变种,它是没有任何发展前途的。

汉语拼音字母是一种音标。

所谓"方言",就是指地域方言。

简答题

为什么说独词句的出现和从独词句到双词句是儿童学话中的关键两步?

以汉语""""""为例,分析词义演变的几种结果。

3.人们根据什么可以知道语音的发展。

论述题

词义的概括性有哪三个重要的表现形式?请举例说明。

语言和说话的区别和联系何在?


语言学概论试题()

单项选择题

1)是说话和表达思想的工具。

思维文字语音语言

2语言是一种()。

自然现象个人现象社会现象正常现象

3认识现实世界是动脑筋的过程是()。

思想思维语言文字

4语言符号的本质是()。

线条性任意性约定俗成征候

5语言是一种分层装置,这种装置的底层是一套()。

字母音位笔划音节

6"我看书。"""的位置上,可以换成"他、小王、老师、人们"等。""与这些词之间的关系属于()。

组合关系聚合关系动宾关系主谓关系

7抽象思维的能力和灵活的发音能力相结合,表现为)。

聪明的才智潜在的能力人类的语言能力超级智慧

8国际音标是国际语音协会于()年制定并开始使用的。

1905194518871888

9语音具有()要素。

10语音和辅音共同构成()。

音素音节拼音拉丁字母

11最大的语法单位是(        ).

段落句子词组

12英语里,"china""中国"的意思,因为瓷器是从中国去的,因而可以用"china""中国"的词义的引申方式叫做()。

隐喻夸张换喻比拟

13在我国,相传汉字是由()造的。

荀卿许慎段玉裁仓颉

14地域方言的差别,主要表现在()上。

词汇语法语音文字

15)属于亲属语言。

汉语和藏语汉语和日语日语和藏语汉语和朝鲜语

16伦敦方言成为英吉利共同语的基础方言是由于()的原因。

政治经济文化主观愿望

17英语的beer,汉语译为"啤酒",这种类型的外来词叫做()。

音译意译音译加意译仿译

18)是不同语言统一为一种语言的基本形式。

语言的接触语言的融合语言的发展语言的分化

19在语言学中,"pidgin"这个单词是指()。

鸽子洋泾浜商业外来语

20词语替换的特点是()。

知识改变某类现实现象的名称现实现象本身发生了变化

名称和现实现象都发生了变化名称和现实现象都没有发生变化

多项选择题(多选、少选、错选,均无分。)

1兼用表意、表音两种方法的文字,叫意音文字。下面属于意音文字的有()。圣书字钉头字玛雅文汉字梵语

2人们所使用的交际工具有()。

语言文字旗语红绿灯电报代码

3常见的语流音变有()。

连续脱落弱化脱落同化

4各种基本语法结构的语法意义必须通过一定的语法形式才能体现出来。提供语法形式的主要是()。

虚词句法词序词性变化选词

5语言发展的特点是()。

渐变性突变性能产性全民性不平衡性

名词解释题

1思维

2组合关系

3语法单位

4意音文字

判断分析题(判断正误,将正确的划上"",错误的划上"×",并简述理由。)

1语言等于说话。

2儿童学习语言的过程分为两个阶段:独词句阶段和双词句阶段。

3征候就是符号。

4一般说来,口腔的不同形状决定了元音的差别。

简答题

1怎样理解语言是人类最重要的交际工具?

2人类为什么要用符号来交际?

3怎样分析音位?

论述题

1试述语言符号的任意性和线条性。

2语音演变的规律性有哪些特点?试举例说明。



语言学概论试题(五)

单项选择题;

1.盐""中的""属于()。

词根词尾词干后缀

2.多义词的中心意义与本义(  )。

完全一致在多数词中一致在少数词中一致完全不一致

3.语言是由(   )够成的系统。

词组和句子语义和语法词汇和语法组合规则和聚和规则

4.孤立语最重要的特点是(   )。

有词形变化没有词形变化词序不严格虚词的作用不大

5.语言符号音义之间的关系(   )。

具有线条性的特点具有任意性的特点是一种组合关系是一种聚合关系

6.语言是一种(   )现象。

个人个人心理社会自然

7.词的理性意义(   )以现实现象为基础。

必须大多数少数可以不

8.英语的sing→sang采用的语法手段是(   )。

加词尾变换重音的位置加词缀词根内部音素的变化

9.语法的组合规则包括(   )。

词法和句法构词法和语法范畴句法和形态内部屈折和词序

10.语音可以从它的(  )属性方面去进行研究。

历史阶级自然美学

11.英语同义词few(少)和little(少)的主要不同点是(  )不同。

强调的重点和方面搭配习惯感情色彩风格色彩

12.对于拉丁字母来说(   )是它的子语。

匈牙利语英语法语俄语

13."超人"一词属于(  )。

基本词汇里的词借词仿译词方言词

14.在汉语普通话中,(   )之间存在着互补关系。

t[s][u][y][a][e][m][  ]

15.共同语的基础是建立在(  )之上的。

一种方言书面语言文学语言统治者所用的语言

二 多项选择题(多选、少选、错选均无分)

一组同义词里面各个词的意义(   )。

具有重叠关系具有对立关系往往同中有异异中有同完全没有反义因素

基本词汇最重要的特点是(  )。

具有反义因素全民常用具有一大批同义词

具有稳固性有较强的够词能力

发元音[i]时,(   )。

要圆唇不用圆唇舌位靠前舌位半高舌位高

汉语中沙发这个词(   )。

包含有两个语素只包含一个语素应当被看成是一个词组

是一个单纯词是一个复合词

三、解释题

非音质音位复合词词尾区别特征

四 判断分析题(判断正误并说明理由

在语言的发展过程中,语音的发展速度最快。

在语言的融和中,统治民族的语言最终会取代被统治民族的语言。

3.社会方言不等于地域方言。

简答题(只要求简要回答,不要求分析举例)

从形式上看句子的最大的特点是什么?

2.什么叫亲属语言?

论述题

举例论述什么叫组合关系,什么叫聚合关系?

文字和语言的关系怎样?文字是怎样去记录语言的?


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